Please Note: Adderall is a trade name for amphetamine. It can be highly addictive for some individuals. If you think someone you know may need help, please check out signs someone is addicted to Adderall.
dextroamphetamine, Dexamphetamine, D-Amphetamine, Dexamfetamine, (S)-Amphetamine, (+)-Amphetamine, (+)-Phenaminum, Desamfetamina, Amsustain, Dephadren, Sympamin, (+)-(S)-Amphetamine, (S)-(+)-Amphetamine, D-(S)-Amphetamine, (S)-1-Phenyl-2-propylamine, (S)-1-Phenyl-2-aminopropane, (2S)-(+)-Amphetamine, (S)-alpha-Phenylethylamine, D-alpha-methylphenethylamine, (S)-(+)-beta-Phenylisopropylamine, (S)-alpha-Methylphenethylamine, (+)-alpha-Methylphenethylamine, (2S)-1-phenylpropan-2-amine, D-AM D-1-Phenyl-2-aminopropane, D-2-Amino-1-phenylpropane, Dexamfetaminum , D-(+)-Amphetamine 
Adderall is defined by the FDA to be a CNS stimulant with a single-entity amphetamine product combining the neutral salts of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, with the dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d, l-amphetamine aspartate monohydrate .
Adderall was originally produced by Shire Pharmaceuticals in 1996 as an instant release pill, initially advertised to eliminate the need for multiple administrations during the day . Shire Pharmaceuticals sold Adderall to DuraMed, which later was acquired by Teva. Teva now owns Adderall, however Shire still produces the extended release (XR) version of the medication.
Adderall consists of four salts by equal weight: D-amphetamine saccharate, D,L-amphetamine aspartate, D-amphetamine sulfate, and D,L-amphetamine sulfate yielding ~75%/25% D-amphetamine/L-amphetamine, respectively .
Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, USP, amphetamine sulfate, USP .
Lactitol, Microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, and other ingredients .
Mode of action:
The exact mechanism, by which adderall helps people afflicted with ADHD, is unknown. It is known that levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and catecholamines are affected after dosing adderall. Unfortunately, the exact method of action remains elusive, however, it is thought that adderall acts to inhibit the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic terminal by the inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT).
One theory separates the actions of Adderall in two different phases. In the figure below, a. represents normal physiologic function of the DAT, while b. shows the effects of Adderall on the inhibition of reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft (phase I). In this model, it is thought that the DAT is also downregulated from the neuronal membrane a la the second phase, which is thought to be responsible for the prolonged duration of dopaminergic signal, seen with Adderall compared to other single agent amphetamines.
The D/L-amphetamine mixture of adderall has, so far, demonstrated a faster onset and longer duration of action as compared to D-amphetamine at the same total dose. In rat studies, it has been found that L-amphetamine is roughly three to six times less potent than D-amphetamine albeit the (DA) transporter currents produced by the isomers are identical. The release of DA by amphetamine displayed characteristics similar to the potassium-induced or electrically induced release of DA .
The efficacy of Adderall in combating symptoms of ADHD/ADD by augmenting one’s attention is well known and is, currently, the reason for its primary indication for prescription. In children, over a period of a year, Adderral has been shown to increase IQ scores in 100% of the children that participated in the study compared to no change in IQ in children not taking any medication . Its stimulant nature also makes it widely used for patients suffering from conditions of hypersomnolence (e.g. narcolepsy).
Depending on one’s goals, whether treating ADHD/ADD or some other indicated use for Adderall, there seems to be a real benefit to using Adderall over other amphetamines, in its quicker onset and longer duration of action. This effect seems to be directly related to the use of a racemic, rather than pure, mixture of amphetamines.
With respect to convergent creative thought, Adderall has been found to enhance one’s ability. This effect was found to be dependent on one’s baseline creative, providing the most benefit for people with already low levels. Alternatively and possibly quite counterintuitively, in people with very high baseline convergent creativity there was noticeable decrease in ability .
Common side effect:
poor appetite, insomnia, stomachache, headache, staring/daydreaming, sadness, changes in vision, increased muscle tension, euphoria and anxiety/irratability .
In patients with ADHD and and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) who were refractory to 8 week treatment of SSRIs, there was a trial to add Adderall as an adjunct in therapy. After 8 weeks it was shown that the patients displayed a vast reduction in symptoms as seen vis-a-vis all effectivements measures, including symptoms of anxiety .
such studies go to show that the field of study for Adderall and its potential to curb symptoms of mental health, both as a primary agent and as an adjunct in therapy, are still in their infancy.
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