Ampelopsin, (2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one, (CAS Number) 27200-12-0, (PubChem) 161557, (ChemSpider) 16735660, C15H12O8
Dihydromyricetin is found in the Hovenia dulcis tree, also known as the Oriental Raisin Tree; the leaves of the tree have been brewed as a tea in the Near East for centuries, and in 2008 was approved by the Korean FDA for use as a treatment for alcoholism. Dihydromyricetin has also been shown to be effective in treating oral ulcers , and antioxidant properties .
Dihydromyricetin Mechanism of Action
Dihydromyricetin appears to have two Mechanisms of Action that allow it to accomplish its two main benefits: the anti-oxidative effects of dihydromyricetin appear to be due to its ability to remove Fe and Fe2+ ions from the body; both Fe and Fe2+ are heavy metals that can have negative effects on the body when present in higher amounts . The second mechanism of action for dihydromyricetin is acting as an antagonist for the GABA(A) receptors in the brain; these receptors are potentiated when a person is in a state of acute alcohol consumption. On a related note, dihydromyricetin also has been found to improve GABA(A) receptor plasticity in alcohol withdrawal and tolerance [6,13].
Dihydromyricetin has shown some interesting effects such as reducing the proliferation of liver carcinoma cells, specifically HepG2 Cells , and showing anti-oxidative effects in the form of lipid peroxidation . Beyond these effects, dihydromyricetin is most well-known for its ability to counteract acute alcohol intoxication in rats and reduces the effects of tolerance and withdrawal in rats. It was also shown that dihydromyricetin had the ability to reduce voluntary alcohol consumption when rats were placed in such a situation [6,13]. Due to these effects, dihydromyricetin has been indicated as a possible treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders.
An injection of 1mg/kg of dihydromyricetin in rats was found to be effective in counteracting alcohol intoxication; this scales to .244mg/kg in humans, or 17.112 mg per day for a 70kg human (150lbs person) .
Up to 200mg/kg of dihydromyricetin was given to rats and found to have no negative side effects; this scales 48.892mg/kg in a human, or 3422mg for a 70kg person (150lbs person) .
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Yi Shen, A. Kerstin Lindemeyer, Claudia Gonzalez, Xuesi M. Shao, Igor Spigelman, Richard W. Olsen and Jing Liang. Dihydromyricetin As a Novel Anti-Alcohol Intoxication Medication. The Journal of Neuroscience, 4 January 2012, 32(1): 390-401; doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4639-11.2012.